Animal Cell

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Animal cells have many organelles such as nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, vesicles and mitochondria. Animal cells have non-membranous structure such as ribosomes and cytoskeleton. Some animal cells have flagella and cillia.



animal cell

Animal Cell
Image credit: Flickr (by mariam6)

Endomembrane system, animal cell

Endomembrane System
Image credit: Wikimedia Commons

Internal structures and functions


  • Consists of nuclear envelope, nucleolus and chromosome.
  • Two layers of membranes, outer and inner membranes. Nuclear envelope surrounds the fluid portion, called nucleoplasm. It controls the movement of substance in and out from the nucleus.
  • Nucleolus is the dark dense mass material in nucleus. It may be one or more nucleolus in a nucleus and has cluster of DNA and proteins.
  • Chromosomes are threadlike structures that contain genetic information that is passed on from one generation to the next generation.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

  • Endoplasmic reticulum continuous with nuclear envelope and extends to cytoplasm.
  • Two types of endoplasmic reticulum: rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Many ribosomes attach to the surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes synthesize proteins.
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not have ribosomes. It synthesizes lipids.

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Golgi body

  • Golgi body composes of a series of flattened membrane-bound sacs.
  • It contains enzyme which finishing protein and lipid, sort them out and package them inside vesicles for shipment to specific location.

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  • Vesicles  (read more) are tiny, membranous sacs to transport or store variety of substances, digesting substances and structure in the cell.


  • Mitochondria has double membrane system which has outermost membrane and inner membrane.
  • Inner membrane fold inward to form cristae.
  • Mitochondria functions as energy generating.

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  • An interconnected system of fibres, threads and lattices. It extends between the nucleus and plasma membrane.
  • It provides the internal organization, shape and capacity of cell to move.
  • Most of the cytoskeleton elements are permanent except some are appear only in certain period, example, spindles are formed before cell division and disappeared after division.

Flagella and cilia

  • Flagellum (plural, flagella) and cilium (plural, cilia) are the examples structures of cell movement or motility.