Golgi Bodies and Vesicles

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Golgi bodies are flattened membranous sacs and look like pancake.

Golgi bodies play an central role in manufacturing, warehousing, sorting and shipping. It contains enzymes. Products from endoplasmic reticulum are transported in the vesicle to Golgi body.

Golgi body has two faces: cis face and trans face. Cis face is located at the position near to endoplasmic reticulum. When the proteins transported in vesicle from endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles coalesce to form new cis Goigi cisternae. Various Golgi enzymes modify the proteins by adding carbohydrates to form glycoproteins. Golgi removes some sugar
monomers and substitutes to produce different variety of carbohydrates. It also attach phopshate group into protein and phopholipids are also modified here.

golgi bodies

Golgi Body
Image credit: Flickr (hasserin)

The modified end products are transported to trans face. Buddings are formed at trans face and release secretory vesicles into cytosol and transport the end products to the desired destination.

Vesicles

Vesicles are tiny and membrane covered sac. Few types of common vesicles are lysosome and buds from Golgi body.

Lysosomes are rich in various enzymes. They breakdown proteins, carbohydrates, nucleis acids and some lipids. Basically, lysosomes fuse with vesicles contain molecules, bacteria which are engulfed in phagocytosis process. Enzymes digest whole cells and some parts of cells.