is a cardiovascular disease where the arteries are hardened by the accumulation of fatty deposits. The accumulation of fatty deposits increase the resistance of blood flow. Inflammation occur where the lining of arteries are damaged or infected. White blood cells are attracted and induce the accumulation of fatty deposits. Eventually, it causes the obstruction of arteries.
Red meat is darker colored meat compared to white meat. Examples of red meat are beef and mutton. Red meat is looked red before and after cooked. It contains high levels of iron, creatinine and minerals. Studies have reported that high consumption of red meat is correlated to cardiovascular diseases. It is due to the high level of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol.
A study published in Nature Medicine showed that intestinal microbiota metabolized the L-cartinine (trimethylamine, TMA) which is found abundant in red meat. TMA is further metabolized by hepatic enzymes to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). TMAO is the proatherogenic (agent enhancing the atherosclerosis). TMAO is associated to cardiovascular diseases. Results showed that prolong consumption of L-carnitine altered the cecal microbial compositions in mice. It enhanced the production of TMA and TMAO compared to intestinal microbiota suppressed mice.
Vegetarians produce less TMAO. It could be due to the less number of intestinal microbiota that can metabolize the carnitine to TMAO compared to non-vegetarians.
From the summary, eating less red meat prevents the development of cardiovascular diseases.